Thursday, April 7, 2016

Cuthbert Musgrave of Crookdake

Cuthbert Musgrave of Crookdake

Richard Graham Musgrove begins the chapter "The First Cuthbert Musgrave" of  his book American Family Musgrove  (page 57), (see note, bottom of page) ;

The largest American branch of the family descends from Cuthbert Musgrave, named for the Saint who lived in the latter part of the 10th century. 
St Cuthbert;s Church: Edenhall, England
The chapel at Edenhall was named St. Cuthbert's and the spring on the grounds of the manor, made famous in The Luck of Edenhall, is also named for him. ...  
The Manor of Crookdake is in the township of Bromfield, about five miles west-southwest of Wigton. It belonged to the Lowther family and came to the Musgraves through Cuthbert's marriage.

Musgrave Men: Their Wars, Titles and Castles

The Musgrave family is from Great Musgrave in Cumbria, England (Cumberland, until 1974) on the northwestern border of Scotland and England. This area was known as 'the debatable lands'; at different times, both England and Scotland laid claim to them.

Cumberland on the
English-Scottish border
From the history of Cumbria, Wikipedia;

...Cumbria was ruled by Scotland at the time of the Norman Conquest of England in 1066... . In 1092 Cumberland  was...incorporated into England.    
...the region was dominated by the many wars and border skirmishes...and the associated Border Reivers... .

The Musgraves were a Border Riever clan, especially good at producing boys and collecting castles. Richard Musgrove reports;
The Musgraves, along with the Huddlestons, are the only families in Cumberland that were of knightly rank before the beginning of the sixteenth century, and that can trace its descent solely through male issue.
This habit of passing on their Y-chromosome helped them become one of the...
...thirteen most notorious of the reiving clans...known locally as de"ils (devils) dozen and consist(ing) of the following families: 
Armstrong, Bell, Carleton, Dacre, Elliot, Graham, Johnstone, Kerr, Maxwell, Musgrave, Nixon, Storey and Scott. - Wikipedia

Peter and son Robert de Musgrave 

From Richard Graham:
The first Musgrave mentioned in the old records is Peter de Musegrave who lived during the reign of Stephen, 1135-1154. 
He is mentioned, along with his son Robert, in (a dispute over) the boundaries of Musgrave and Blaterne. ... 
Great Musgrave Village, Cumbria, England
Musgrave Manor, referred to here, exists today as two villages; Great and Little Musgrave.

John and Adam de Musgrave

Robert's son, John de Musgrave, Lord of Great and Little Musgrave, married Matilda, daughter of Adam, Lord Carevile, Cumberland. Carevile Manor was divided between Matilda and her brother, William, in 1207. ...   
John's first son, Adam de Musgraveinherited Great and Little Musgrave and half of the manor of Carevile
Adam had six sons: Thomas, Richard, Adam, Robert, Roger and Nicholas.... 
The second son is my ancestor, Richard de Musgrave...Musgrave Manor went to his older brother, Thomas, who had no sons. (It) returned to our line two generations later.

Sir Richard de Musgrave II

Sir Richard de Musgrave was the first of our line to bear the title of Chevalier. This archaic title indicated an armed horseman or knight. ... 
He died in 1302 leaving four sons: Richard, John, Nicholas and Thomas. Our line descends through Richard, the eldest. 
Sir Richard de Musgrave III
Sir Richard de Musgrave was Lord of Musgrave having come into possession as the heir of his Uncle Thomas. 
He was also Lord of Crossby Gerard and Soulby from his marriage to Johanna, a daughter of Thomas de Quitland.  
Sir Richard fought in the Scottish Wars in the early 14th century. He had four sons: Sir Robert, John, Thomas and Adam. Our line descends through the eldest son and heir.
Hartley Castle

Contemporary illustration of
Harclay defending 
Carlisle Castle 
against the Scots in 1315
The youngest son of Sir Richard de Musgrave and brother of  Sir Richard II was Thomas de Musgrave. He married Sarah de Harcla (anglicized Harclay). Her father was the owner of Hartley Castle. From Wikipedia:
Andrew Harclay, 1st Earl of Carlisle (ca. 1270 – 3 March 1323) important English military leader in the borderlands with Scotland during the reign of Edward II....  
He distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars, and in 1315 repulsed a siege on Carlisle Castle by Robert the Bruce  
Shortly after this, he was taken captive by the Scots, and only released after a substantial ransom had been paid.   
Some years later Harclay became frustrated with Edward II's prosecution of the war, resulting in defeats and he came to believe that the war could not be won.

Same Wikipedia article:

A man being drawn by horses to his execution
© British Library Board
Harclay initiated negotiations with the Scots on his own accord, and on 3 January 1323, he signed a peace treaty with Robert the Bruce. 

The act was without royal sanction, and amounted to treason. ...he was hanged, drawn and quartered, and the various parts of his body displayed in different parts of the country. 

From the Hartley Family History page:

After the execution of Sir Andrew the Manor Hall and estate passed to Ralph NEVIL, who fortified it in 1323 and subsequently sold them to Sir Thomas de MUSGRAVE. 

Sir Thomas built his stone tower and received a licence to crenellate (permission to fortify it ed.) it on 4 October, 1353. 

(The reason for the request to fortify the castle in 1353 is given as;
"Harcla is situated near the Scottish Marches and because our enemy the Scots have often burned and destroyed it.")
Sir Richard de MUSGRAVE [died 1615], enlarged it by the addition of Elizabethan wings and transformed the fortress into a mansion. 

Sir Philip MUSGRAVE repaired and furnished the ancient chapel as also such rooms as had been left unfinished at the time of the Civil War. 

When about the year 1677 the MUSGRAVE family removed to Eden Hall, Hartley Castle was deserted and allowed to fall into ruin. It was totally demolished between 1704 and 1735 by Sir Christopher MUSGRAVE who died in 1735.

(The rubble from the Hartley Castle was used to renovate Edenhall.)

Sir Thomas de Musgrave

Sir Thomas de Musgrave was knighted by his grandfather in August, 1377 before a battle with the Scots at Tweeddale. At the time, his grandfather, Sir Richard, was Governor of Berwick. 
Carlisle Castle
He was Lord of Musgrave and had the manor of Harcla, Westmorland confirmed to him by the King in 1367. He held the castle and manor of Skipton-in-Craven as the dower from his wife. 
She was Isabella...the mother of their three sons, Sir Richard, John and Thomas. He was associated, in 1346, with the Bishop of Carlisle and others in guarding the western marches toward Scotland.
He left three sons and a daughter, Agnes. Sir Thomas, from whom our line descended, was his heir

Hayton Castle

From Wikiedia: 
Hayton Castle
Hayton Castle is the centre of a small manor within the baroncy of Allerdale, whose families have featured prominently in the history of Cumberland. ... 
...this manor passed by a succession of female heirs to Robert de Mulcaster...who was High Sherriff of Cumberland for two periods between 1298 and 1306, and various members of that family appear to have been Knights of the shire of Cumberland during the 14th century.  
Hayton Castle
This line possessed the manor for five generations, but through the failure of the male issue it passed to Piers Jeffrey Tilliol, by his marriage to the heiress.  Piers had two daughters Isabella and Margaret. Isabella, who received Hayton, married John Colville of Torpenhow.  
Colville died in 1438 and his line came to an end in 1479, once more with two daughters, who both married younger sons of Sir Thomas Musgrave (1417-1469) of Hartley Castle. 
It was from this marriage of Margaret Colville and Nicholas Musgrave (1450-1506), fourth son of Sir Thomas that sprang the line through which the manor was handed down for fourteen generations, lasting about 300 years.

Sir Richard Musgrave

The first son and heir of Sir Thomas was Sir Richard Musgrave. He was knighted in 1418 and was Sheriff of Westmorland from 1420 onwards. 
He was Lord of Musgrave, Murton, Hartley, Crossby Gerard, Soulby and Kirkby Stephen. ... 
Edenhall, England
...Their two sons, Sir Thomas and Richard, married the two daughters of Sir William de Stapleton, Knight and Lord of Edenhall. These unions brought the celebrated Edenhall into the family.

Sir Thomas Musgrave

The older of the two sons, Sir Thomas Musgrave, through whom our line descends, married Johanna, Margaret's sister. This Sir Thomas was knighted and became Lord of the manors of Great and Little Musgrave, Hartley, Crossby Gerard, Murton, Soulby and Kirkby Stephen, all in Westmorland and Edenhall, Hotton and Bochardby, in Cumberland. 

He had four sons from whom descend the families of Edenhall, Musgrave Hall, Hayton and Crookdake. ... 

Their sons were Sir Richard, Knight of Hartley Castle, Sir John, Knight of Newcastle-upon- Tyne, Nicholas of Hayton Castle, Cumberland and, our ancestor, William of Penrith, Cumberland.

William Musgrave: Cuthbert's Father

During his research family historian Richard Graham Musgrove traveled to England where he copied the will of William Musgrave (ca. 1620 - 1663), reproduced in his book on page 68-69. From this he deduces on page 70 of his book;

Crookdake Hall in Cumbria, England
...Cuthbert lived in a farmer's home. His father was certainly no rich man, in goods anyway. He raised grain of various sorts and did a little brewing. 
He did not own a large number of farm animals and his crops, both in the barn and still growing in the field, did not accumulate to a large sum. ... 
Crookdake Hall would have to be considered his primary asset. 
From this William Musgrave descended Cuthbert Musgrave, who sailed to the New World and established the largest Musgrove clan in the Untied States of America.

More on that, next post.

First War of Scottish Independence 3 Minute History

This post relies heavily on the research of Richard Graham Musgrove, author of The American Family Musgrove. (hosted pdf file at link). At over 800 pages, his book is a primary source for Cuthbert Musgrove family researchers. Rather than rewrite his book, we cite his work frequently.* We've augmented his study with our own internet research of the border of England and Scotland.

Anyone interested in more information on the lineages, castles and titles of the American Musgrave family of Cumbria, England, should refer to pages 29 through 49 of Richard Musgrove's book, The American Family Musgrove

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